A to Z CSS: General Sibling

The general sibling selector is part of the family of combinator selectors in CSS that allow the styling of descendents, children, grandchildren and siblings of an element. Some of them aren’t that commonly used but they have very deep browser support.

  • h2 ~ p {} /* general sibling */
  • h2 p {} /* descendent */
  • h2 * p {} /* grandchild */
  • h2 > p {} /* child */
  • h2 + p {} /* adjacent sibling */

Browser Support

All modern browsers and IE7+.


General sibling is a little known but very useful CSS selector.

It allows the styling of an element that is a sibling of another.

We’ll look at the syntax, a practical example and then a quick round up of the other child and sibling selectors in CSS.


The general sibling selector is part of the family of combinator selectors in CSS and is identified with the tilde character. It looks a bit like this:

h2 ~ p {

This selector will style any paragraphs that are siblings of a second-level heading and occur after the h2.

The benefit of this selector is that the paragraphs don’t have to be adjacent siblings of the h2.

	<h1>Lorem ipsum</h1>
	<p>Dolor sit amet</p>
	<h2>Lorem ipsum</h2>
	<p>Dolor sit amet</p>
	<h3>Lorem ipsum</h3>
	<p>Dolor sit amet</p>

In this code snippet, both the paragraphs after the h2 will be red, but the first one will not as it doesn’t come after a h2 in the document.

This can be a little confusing as all the paragraphs could be said to be “general siblings” of each other but the selector would not match the first one. This could be the reason that this selector has been re-named in the CSS Selectors Level 4 spec to the “following sibling” selector.

<h2>Lorem ipsum</h1>
	<p>Dolor sit amet</p>

In this case, even though the paragraph comes after the h2, the paragraph and h2 aren’t siblings so our selector won’t match anything here.

Practical Example

Let’s have a look at a practical example.

The Summary and Transcript accordions on the AtoZ CSS website, use the general sibling selector to determine the open/closed state of each section. This whole behaviour is purely handled in CSS, there’s no Javascript here!

The markup for the titles of each section has a hidden input, a h1 with a label inside of it, followed by a div to contain the accordion content.

Clicking on the label, switches the :checked state of the input and then the general sibling selector allows the styling of the .accordion-content.

When the input is not checked, the max-height of the accordion is set to zero. When the input is checked, the max-height is set to an unlikely large value – 10000px in this case. Applying a bit of transition, gives a smooth sliding animation.

input ~ .episode-accordion {
	max-height: 0;
input:checked ~ .episode-accordion {
	max-height: 10000px;
.episode-accordion {
	-webkit-transition: all 1s ease-in-out;
	        transition: all 1s ease-in-out;

Other Child & Sibling Selectors

As this was a rather short episode, let’s take a look at some of the other combinator selectors available in CSS. These are supported since IE7 which should have the vast majority of use-cases well and truly covered.

Decendent Selector

The decendent selector has been around since forever and selects elements matching the second selector while they have the first selector as an ancestor.

div p { 

This selector will make all paragraphs in any child element of any div red.

Grandchild Selector

The Grandchild selector is similar to the decendent selector but selects elements that match the second selector if they are decendents of any child element of the first selector. It uses the asterisk character but it’s important to note that this is not the same as the wildcard or universal “star” selector.

div * p { 

This selector will make all paragraphs in children of a div red.

Child Selector

The child selector, signified by the greater than sign, selects elements matching the second selector that are a direct child of elements matching the first selector.

div > p { 

This selector will make all paragraphs that are children of a div red.

Adjacent Sibling

The adjacent sibling selector is similar to general sibling selector and is signified with the + character. This selector will style elements matching the second selector as long as they appear immediately after an element matching the first selector.

div + p { 

This selector will make any paragraphs that directly follow a div red.

As I mentioned previously, all these selectors are available in IE7+ so you can (almost certainly) use them right now. Hopefully they’ll come in handy for your next project.

AtoZ CSS: Learn CSS and sharpen your front-end skills

AtoZ CSS is a video screencast series that tackles one CSS topic per letter of the alphabet. From auto to z-index, take a deep dive into a single property, value, selector or concept each week.


Guy Routledge

Guy is a consultant front-end developer specialising in front-end architecture and Sass-flavoured CSS. Building on years of experience, he has recently worked with a range of clients in the UK and internationally as well as numerous individuals and creative agencies and also teaches a range of courses and workshops. Away from client work and the classroom, he is currently building a library of video screencasts and courses on his favourite web topics. You can read more about Guy and his latest musings on his blog. When not in front of the computer or catching up on the latest web drama, he has a keen interest in property investment and fine food and wine and someday plans to open his own restaurant.